Russia has repeatedly threatened to use nuclear weapons if it feels its vital interests are threatened. This threat has been made more explicit in the context of the Ukraine war, as Russia has struggled to achieve its objectives.

There are a number of actions that the United States or NATO could take that could push Russia to use nuclear weapons. These include:

Direct military intervention in Ukraine. This would be the most likely scenario to trigger a Russian nuclear response. Russia has repeatedly warned that any NATO troops entering Ukraine would be considered a direct threat to its security.

Aerial strikes on Russian territory. This would be a more limited form of military intervention, but it would still be seen by Russia as a serious escalation.

Providing Ukraine with long-range missiles that could reach deep into Russian territory. This would give Ukraine the ability to strike Russian military targets and infrastructure, which would be seen as a major threat by Russia.

Imposing a no-fly zone over Ukraine. This would require NATO to shoot down Russian aircraft that violated the zone, which would be a direct military confrontation between Russia and NATO.

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Supplying Ukraine with nuclear weapons. This would be the most extreme scenario, and it is highly unlikely that the United States or NATO would ever do this. However, if Russia believed that Ukraine was close to acquiring nuclear weapons, it could use nuclear weapons preemptively to prevent this from happening.

In addition to these specific actions, Russia could also be driven to use nuclear weapons if it felt that it was losing the war in Ukraine and that its very existence was at stake. This could happen if Ukrainian forces were able to launch a major counteroffensive and drive Russian forces out of the country.

It is important to note that even if the United States or NATO takes any of the actions listed above, there is no guarantee that Russia would use nuclear weapons. However, these actions would certainly increase the risk of nuclear escalation.

The United States and NATO must be careful not to take any actions that could push Russia to use nuclear weapons. This means avoiding direct military intervention in Ukraine, airstrikes on Russian territory, and providing Ukraine with long-range missiles that could reach deep into Russian territory. It also means being careful not to escalate the rhetoric around the war.

The best way to deter Russia from using nuclear weapons is to make it clear that any use of nuclear weapons would have devastating consequences for Russia. This means maintaining a strong nuclear deterrent and working with allies to ensure that Russia understands the costs of using nuclear weapons.